Vol 10, No 2 (2018)
Vol 10, No 2 (2018)
Table of Contents
Nigar Değirmenci, Büşra Kaya
Abstract: The main objective of this study is to scientifically prove the limits of the hypothesis that political memory is shaped by the media and press operations in Turkey under the influence of the political actors. The studies consist of using two different methods, media analysis and fieldwork. In this context, the media analysis involves newspaper articles about the political leaders from the 2014 Presidential elections. The newspapers were selected based on their political view and ratings. We collected and analysed 1067 articles from the most read five national newspapers which have different places on the political spectrum in Turkey, published between June 1 and August 10, 2014. The fieldwork chapter of the analysis consisted of a sealed envelope survey. The questionnaire forms were given to the 500 students from Pamukkale University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, 243 of them were valid; social media and media usage habits of the subjects were examined and evaluated with their replies to the memory-related questions. Lastly, the study concluded that the interactive-relationship between media and memory could be shaped by the political motivations of media and/or political actors, but the result can be eventually a false memory. That is, one’s habitus has the determining priority regarding the scope and the content of the memory -or the false memory.
Abdelhamid Hati, Amina Abdessemed-Foufa
Résumé. Etablir un processus de patrimonialisation, ou l’adapter au contexte industriel des minoteries ? De telles initiatives ont été largement traitées par les protecteurs du patrimoine dans le monde. La conservation, la réhabilitation, la reconversion ont marqué l’histoire versant pour le profit des retombées touristiques. La valorisation des ressources par voix numérique, certes, est une action conservatrice, mais qui manque de pratique concrète sur le terrain. Le patrimoine médiatisé gagne en valorisation cependant, il perd de son état de conservation s’il y a un manque d’intervention. La sauvegarde du patrimoine industriel ne se considère pas prioritaire aujourd'hui pour L’Algérie, malgré cette richesse non exploitée qui se trouve en péril si aucune action de protection n'est engagée. Cette réalité observée est due en grande partie au détachement de la société de la mémoire des lieux que portent ces minoteries algériennes. Comment pourrait-on créer ou améliorer l’attachement entre société et minoterie par vois numérique? L’objectif de ce présent article est la construction symbolique d’une mémoire et d’histoire personnelle propre aux minoteries algériennes du XIXe et XXe siècle. Une démarche introductive a un attachement social, attribuant à ces minoteries l’aspect patrimonial d’une construction sociale au sein de la société actuelle.La méthode adoptée est la recherche-action participative, conjuguant intervention sociale et médiation mémorielle par le biais de l’outil numérique. Sur une plate-forme assemblant pédagogie, formation et travail, un programme touchant tous les groupes d’âge sera établi et lancé en premier sur les directions pédagogiques de l’enseignement, de la classe primaire à l’université, rendant cette plate-forme un espace de référence. Les liens sociaux unifiant les usagers avec leurs familles vont la faire émerger. Ce programme va contenir des formations et sorties lucratives sur terrain selon la tranche d’âge. La plate-forme quant à elle, aura la fonction de stocker et méditer l’histoire créée. Cette méthode va influencer le niveau de fréquentation des minoteries ainsi la création d’une mémoire et d’histoire collectives des lieux aboutissant à un attachement social. Ensemble, les résultats attendus de cette démarche peuvent constituer un processus interactif de construction symbolique d’un patrimoine pour lequel il y avait peur ou pas d’histoire partagée avec la société. La catégorie la plus experte de la société bénéficiera d’un enseignement, et à long terme un attachement aux minoteries que la société avait à interagir et à créer sa propre histoire personnelle. Le traitement de l’information aujourd’hui est pris par la fascination de la technologie. Le numérique gagne du terrain, et son expansion peut être utilisée comme élément d’analyse et expertise communicationnel œuvrant pour la qualité mémorielle de la société.
Artan Krasniqi, Albert Mecini, Dren Gërguri
Abstract. Sacrifice, as a social phenomenon, is as old as mankind and is found in almost all cultures. Related to this, the main goal of this paper is to explore the social and historical relation of women’s sacrifice in the honour of morale code, then analyzing mediatisation of this phenomenon in the present days. Cultural heritage monuments are such not just because they preserve the object, but also because they are covered with legends and stories. This paper will present three cases of Kosovo's cultural heritage monuments, which are related only to women. The first one is about the Girls’ Fortress in Prizren. The fortress took this name because of two legends which were related to women. The second monument filled up in legend is the tomb and mosque of Xhylfatyn in Peja. It is a rare example of a woman's sacrifice for her husband who was an army officer, and whose metamorphosis is on the bridge. The third monument is also related to the act of sacrifice, it represents the sacrifice of a woman who made possible constructing the Holy Bridge which links Gjakova to Rahovec; it is similar to the legend of sacrifice for objects construction which may be encountered in many cultures. All these stories about these legends are also published in the Kosovo’s media and the paper analyses the ways they are presented in media. The qualitative research based on case studies, interviews and observation constitutes researching methods for this paper.
Abstract. Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill is one of the most recognizable figures in modern history. The former British Prime Minister occupied numerous roles during his lifetime – a politician, writer, laureate of the Nobel Prize for Literature, historian. However, for the purpose of this article we have focused on one of Churchill’s most prominent roles – an excellent orator. The former Prime Minister has been remembered for giving superior speeches that during the war period gave people hope and courage. Churchill found good rhetoric as a remedy for every concern and as the most potent weapon against the enemy. A few well-chosen words wrapped into persuasive arguments that go together with excellent delivery can persuade even the most diehard defeatists. The following article constitutes the retrospective analysis of speeches given by Winston Churchill during the war period (1938–1945). The analysis focuses on the very content of the speeches, not their register. Therefore, we have not analyzed the applied rhetorical devices but the used arguments. The speeches have been analyzed according to the method of textual markers introduced by Piotr Chruszczewski in 2003. According to this method, the analyzed text is divided into small, consistent fragments which correspond to one strand. The fragments are then described by markers that constitute the models of the arguments that were used by the speaker. The social embedding of the analyzed speeches required coming up with additional models of arguments.
Abstract. Cemeteries as delimited areas, arranged according to certain rules, equipped with the set of selected elements, are like a mirror, which reflects the various aspects of the activity of the society that creates them. The aim of the article is to present the suggested way of describing cemetery space, as well as to decipher the information included in gravestone inscriptions (perceived as a linguistic statement). The analysis concerns the following types of necropolises: local, religious, as well as – treated as a new phenomenon in the Polish sepulchral customs – animal and virtual ones.
Abstract: This article aims to analyze the extent to which the authorities of eighteen Polish cities with the status of provincial capitals use ICT to stimulate local civil dialogue. The quantitative analysis of the content of Internet media managed by local self-government institutions shows that over 80% of the aforementioned cities have not implemented an integrated online system, which would allow residents to report current local problems and obtain feedback concerning these issues. The analysis of online tools utilized during public consultations indicated that the most frequently adopted mechanisms are those, which not only exclude the in-depth dialogue between authorities and citizens but also deprive residents of a chance to respond to opinions of other members of the local community. An analogous situation also occurs during participatory budgeting, the formula of which includes the involvement of citizens at an early stage of a decision-making process. While residents of almost three-fourths of the analyzed cities can submit proposals of budgetary tasks via the Internet, only every fourth provincial capital uses online tools allowing residents to comment on the aforementioned projects. This situation should be perceived as a part of a broader problem – the vast majority of the analyzed cities have not even made an attempt at using ICT to establish a platform enabling a permanent, bilateral exchange of ideas and opinions between residents and local policymakers.
Abstract. The article has been devoted to the phenomenon of anti-language and the focal point of the paper refers to the analysis of socio-cultural processes involved in the formation and reception of anti-laguage. The analysis has been aimed at defining the circumstances of the occurrence of anti-laguage as well as determining its role and functions at both individual and collective levels. My general approach to the study of anti-language outlines the social functions which govern the emergence of anti-languages with the explicit reference to language, context and text. Kenneth Burke (1966) defines man as a symbol-using animal. In his “Definition of Man”, Burke draws attention to the concept of negativity when he argues that negatives do not occur in nature and they are solely a product of human symbol systems. According to Burke, “(…) language and the negative ‘invented’ man (…)” (Burke 1966: 9). The study has begun with the premise that antilanguage permanently depicts an antagonistic attitude towards the official language, whereas the negative attitude towards anti-language translates directly into stigmatisation of its users. The negativity of the affix anti- in anti-language has been culturally and socially structured as antithetical to language. Nevertheless, language and anti-language do not necessarily forge a typical antithesis in a polar sense. Victor Turner (/1969/ 1975) employs the affix anti- for his term
anti-structure and explains that the affix has been used strategically and does not imply radical negation. This paper seeks to revise the one-dimensional attitude towards anti-language and fortify its social significance with a new quality. The basis for the study of anti-language has been its multi-functionality and multifaceted character. A modest corpus of anti-languages has been analysed in order to illustrate a complex and polysemic nature of this phenomenon.
Abstract. This paper, being a part of a bigger project1, aims at identifying linguistic features of American political discourse on the basis of Hillary Clinton’s first debate speech from the 2016 presidential campaign in the United States2. It begins by explaining the notion of discourse and depicting its relation to power. Then, the applied methodology is presented. It is made up of three components, namely a pragmatic analysis on the basis of deixis and presupposition, Critical Discourse Analysis according to the framework elaborated by Norman Fairclough, as well as quantitative research that aims at examining top phrases with the highest frequency. The paper finishes by presenting the results of the analysis and indicating possibilities for further research.
Abstract. The article explores the methodological approach of the designer around the promotion and communication project of the Tropaeum Traiani and the municipality of Adamclisi, located in the Dobruja region in Romania. The designer's ability consists in adapting to new scenarios, storing and reprocessing new information, taking note of the change and reasserting the project management. In this case the research has doubled between two targets, on the one hand, the stakeholders of the territory and on the other hand, the cyclists. The first phase of the project deals with the collection of data regarding the identity of the territory and the case studies of sustainable tourism. The second phase focuses on the data analysis and the field research, while the third phase deals with a target trend tourism research. At the end we collect some feedback from the
stakeholders and the cyclists on the project and analyse the results from which to draw conclusions for future developments.
Abstract. Only five presidential messages led to formally declared wars in the history of the USA. While attempting to shed some light on the role of discourse in the origins of armed conflicts, the contribution explores a selection of textual aspects of war discourse on the basis of President Woodrow Wilson’s Address to Congress Requesting a Declaration of War Against Germany. The address is analysed in the context of the remaining four presidential messages delivered before the formally declared wars by J. Madison, J. Polk, W. McKinley and F. D. Roosevelt. The first section of the paper1 gives a short description of the relevant theoretical foundations of the analysis. In the second section the methodological underpinnings of the analysis are established (Fairclough, 1992; Chruszczewski, 2002). The problematic of readability of texts is introduced and it is followed by the introduction of the typology of arguments devised by Chruszczewski (2003). In the third section the analysis of the presidential speech is preceded by a brief overview of Wilson’s presidency. Following the presentation of the results of the readability test, the structure of a general model of argument development is presented and the results of the analysis are discussed with focus on the semantic content of Wilson’s Address as well as on the reasons for the continual increase in the readability of the five consecutive presidential war messages.